Session 3 Space weather impact on radio measurements at high latitudes (including multi-instrument data analysis)
Radio measurements at high-latitudes are frequently influenced by solar eruptive events due to the coupling of the solar wind with the high latitude ionosphere through the cusps and the convergence of magnetic field lines. Hence, the high latitude ionosphere is highly dynamic and characterized by the formation of “ionospheric irregularities” in response to space weather events. Ionospheric irregularities degrade the operations of radio beacons used for navigation such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Large scale irregularities (above a few hundred meters) result in phase fluctuations of the GNSS signals, triggered by signal refraction through the ionospheric medium, while small scale irregularities (below a few hundred meters) result in amplitude and phase scintillations, triggered mainly by signal diffraction. Beside GNSS signals, HF communications are also degraded by the presence of ionospheric irregularities leading to fading and outages. Modeling and forecasting the occurrence of the ionospheric irregularities and their impact on radio systems is still an open challenge to the scientific community due to the challenges related to prediction and mitigation of high latitude space weather effects. Currently, different instruments are available for space weather studies of the high-latitude ionosphere: from ground-based observations (TEC and scintillation receivers, coherent and incoherent scatter radars, magnetometers, all-sky-imagers) to in-situ measurements provided by LEO satellites and sounding rockets. The space weather session addresses (but is not limited to) recent developments in monitoring, modelling and forecasting space weather effects, data analysis (especially based on multi-instrument observations), measurement campaigns and international initiatives related to the understanding of space weather impacts on ionospheric structures, morphology, dynamics and the related threats to radio based monitoring and measuring systems at high latitudes.